Seeds

Planting Details
Common Name; Species Germination time; days Germination; % Seed longevity (years) Root depth and type Spacing between mature plant centers
VEGETABLE
Asparagus: Asparagus officinalis x x x MS 2' – 4'
Beans; bush: Phaseolus vulgaris 6 – 14 90 1 DF 2" – 3"
Beans; pole: Phaseolus vulgaris 6 – 14 90 1 DF 4" – 6"
Beets: Beta vulgaris 7 – 10 70 4 DT 4" – 6"
Broccoli: Brassica oleracea; var. italica 3 – 10 80 4 ST 10" – 12"
Brussels sprouts: Brassica oleracea; var. gemmifera 3 – 10 70 4 ST 12" – 16"
Cabbage: Brassica oleracea; var. capitata 4 – 10 80 4 SF 12" – 16"
Cantaloupe: Cucumis melo 4 – 8 70 5 ST Mounds; 8'
Carrots: Daucus carota; var. sativa 10 – 17 55 4 ST 1" – 4" (per size)
Cauliflower: Brassica oleracea; var. botrytus 4 – 10 80 4 ST 10" – 12"
Celery: Apium graveolens 9 – 21 50 6 MT 10" – 12"
Chicory: Cichorium intybus 5 – 12 80 8 MT Thin to 6" – 8"
Chives: Allium schoenoprasum X X X SF 2"
Collards: Brassica oleracea; var. acephala 04/10/14 80 4 MT Thin to 5"
Corn: Zea mays; var. saccharata 06/10/14 80 2 MF 12" – 18"
Cress: Nasturtium officinale 04/10/14 80 3 ST 1/2"
Cucumber: Cucumis sativus 06/10/14 80 7 SF Mounds; 4'
Eggplant: Solanum melon-gena 07/14/14 60 6 MF 8" – 10"
Garlic: Allium sativum 06/10/14   2 SF 4"
Kale: Brassica oleracea; var. acephala 03/10/14 80 4 MT Thin to 12"
Kohlrabi: Brassica cau-lorapa 03/10/14 80 4 ST 6" – 8"
Leeks: Allium porrum 07/12/14 60 4 SF 5"
Lettuce; Bibb: Lactuca sativa; var. capitata 04/10/14 85 4 SF 6"
Lettuce; Rodin: L. sativa 04/10/14 85 4 SF 7"
Lettuce; French all-season: L. sativa 04/10/14 85 4 SF 8"
Lettuce; cos: L. sativa 04/10/14 85 4 SF 6"
Mustard (greens): Bras-sica alba 04/10/14 80 3 ST Thin to 6"
Onions: Allium cepa X X X SF 4" – 6"
Parsley: Petroselinum 14 – 28 50 1 MT Thin to 5"
Parsnips: Pastinaca sativa 14 – 28 50 01/02/14 MT Thin to 4"
Peas: Pisum sativum; var. arvense 06/15/14 80 1 DF 3" – 4"
Peppers; green: Cap-sicum frutescens 10/20/14 55 4 SF 8" – 10"
Potatoes: Solanum tuberosum 08/16/14 90 1 DF Early 10"; mid-late 14" -18"
Pumpkins: Cucurbita pepo; moschata 08/16/14 75 5 MF Mounds; 4'
Radishes: Raphanus sativus 03/10/14 80 4 ST 2"
Rhubarb: Rheum rhaponticum X X X DT 2" – 3"
Rutabagas: Brassica na-pobrassica 03/10/14 75 4 ST Thin to 6"
Salsify: Tragopogon porrifolius 18 – 30 90 1 MT 4"
Spinach: Spinacia oleracea 06/12/14 65 1 SF Thin to 4"
Squash: Cucurbita maxima 03/12/14 80 5 SF Mounds; 4'
Tomatoes: Lycopersicon esculentum 06/14/14 80 4 MF 1' – 2'
Salsify: Tragopogon porrifolius 18 – 30 90 1 MT 4"
Spinach: Spinacia oleracea 06/12/14 65 1 SF Thin to 4"
Squash: Cucurbita maxima 03/12/14 80 5 SF Mounds; 4'
Tomatoes: Lycopersicon esculentum 06/14/14 80 4 MF 1' – 2'
Turnips: Brassica rapa 03/10/14 75 1 ST 2" – 4"
Watermelon: Citrullus vulgaris 03/12/14 70 6 DF Mounds; 4'
PERENNIAL HERBS
Angelica: Angelica archangelica 21 – 30   01/06/14 DT 18" – 24"
Catnip: Nepeta cataria 21 – 30   5 MF 10" – 12"
Comfrey: Symphytum pere-grinum X   X DT 2' – 4'
Lavender: Lavandula vera 10/21/14   5 MS 10" – 12"
Lemon Balm: Melissa officinalis 07/21/14   5 MF 10" – 12"
Oregano: Origanum vulgare 21 – 30   5 MF 18" – 24"
Peppermint: Mentha piperita X   X MF 12"
Rosemary: Rosmarinus officinalis 14 – 28   4 MT 12" – 24"
Rue: Ruta graveolens 10/21/14   2 MT 10" – 12"
Sage: Salvia officinalis 14 – 28   3 MT 10" – 12"
Savory; winter: Satureja montana 21 – 30   3 MT 8" – 10"
Thyme: Thymus vulgaris 14 – 21   3 SS 6" – 12"
HERBS; ANNUAL
Anise: Pimpinella anisum 14 – 18   3 MT 12" – 18"
Basil: Ocimum basilicum 07/14/14   8 SF 8" – 10"
Borage: Borago officinalis 07/14/14   8 MT 12" – 24"
Caraway: Carum carvi 14 – 18   3   8" -10"
Chamomile; Roman: Anthemis nobilis 14 – 18     MF 10" – 12"
Coriander: Coriandrum sativum 14 – 18   6   12"- 18"
Dill: Anethum graveolens 14 – 18   3 MT 10"- 18"
Fennel; sweet: Foeniculum vulgare 14 – 18   4 DT 12"- 24"
Marjoram: Majorana hor-tensis 14 – 20   3 MF 12"- 18"
Savory; summer: Satureja hort. 18- 21   3 MF 8" -10"
Tarragon: Artemisia dranunculus 21 – 30   3 MF 10" – 12"
FLOWERS
Achillea: Millfoil; Yarrow 10   2   12"
Althea rosea: Hollyhock 10   4 DT 12" – 24"
Alyssum 5   2 SF 3" – 4"
Anemone: Windflower 15   2 SB 4" – 6"
Antirrhinum: Snapdragon 20   3 MT 8" – 12"
Aquilegia: Columbine 15   2 MF 10" – 12"
Aster 8   2   10" -24"
Aubrieta 20     SF 4"
Bellis: English Daisy 5   2   18"
Calendula: Pot Marigold 10   3 MF 8" – 10"
Calliopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria) 20   2   8" – 10"
Campanula: Bellflower 10   3   10" – 12"
Centaurea: Bachelor’s button 20   2   8" – 10"
Chrysanthemum 5   3 DF 4" – 18" (per size)
Coleus 20   2 MF Pot
Coreopsis 20   2 MF 18" – 20"
Cosmos: Cosmea 5   2 MF 10" – 12"
Dahlia 5   2 DT 18" – 24"
Delphinium 15   2 MF 12" – 24"
Dianthus alpinus 5   3 SF 4" – 6"
Dianthus barbatus: Sweet Wil-liam 5   3 SS 8" – 10"
Dianthus: Carnation hybrids 20   3 SS 6" – 8"
Dianthus: Pinks 8   3 SS 6" – 8"
Digitalis: Foxglove 20   2 MS 12" – 18"
Gaillardia: Blanket flower 20   2   12" – 18"
Gypsophila: Baby’s breath 20   2 SF 6" – 8"
Helianthus: Sunflower 15   3 MF 12"
Helichrysum: Everlasting; Strawflower 5   2   8" – 10"
Iris 30   1 MB 6" – 8"
Hyacinthus X   X SF 8" – 12"
Lathyrus: Sweet pea 15   3 DF 4" – 6"
Limonium: Statice 15   1   10" – 12"
Lunaria: Honesty; Money plant 10   3   12"
Lupinus: Lupine 20   3 DT 6" – 24"
Matthiola: Stocks 5   3 MT 10" – 12"
Myosotis: Forget-me-not 15   3 SF 4" – 6"
Nigella: Love-in-a-mist 8   2 SF 6"
Pelargonium (Geranimum) 20   3 MF 18" – 24"
Penstemon 20   2   12" -18"
Phlox; perennial 20-40   1 MF 6" – 8"
Phlox; annual (Drummondii 10   1 MF 6" – 8"
Primula 15   1 SF 10"
Ranunculus 15   2 SF 4" – 6"
Ricinus: Castor bean 15   3 MF 3" – 4"
Salpiglossis 5       10" – 12"
Tagetes: Marigold 5   3 MF 12" -14"
Tropaeolum majus: Nasturtium 8   3 SF 12" – 24"
Viola tricolor: Pansy 10   1 SF 6" – 8"
Zinnia 5   3 MF 10" – 12"
  • x Means species is not propagated by seed
  • -1″>Longevity means the number of years the seed may be stored and still germinate with good vitality.
  • Root Depth
    • S means Shallow
    • M means Medium
    • D means Deep
  • -1″>Root Type
    • F means Fibrous
    • T means Taproot
    • S means Spreading as roots go down

How do you know when your crops are ripe? It’s not always obvious. Here are some tips:

Harvest Time Tips
Asparagus Usually takes 3 years before you harvest; although strong varieties (such as all-male) may be harvested at 2 years. Harvest only for one month the first time. Cut or snap off spears at 5-8 inches tall. Don't dig or you may damage spears that haven't emerged yet. Remember tops have to grow strong to store energy for next spring's harvest.
Beans Best when pods snap readily; while tips are still pliable.
Beets Harvest early beets at 1.5-2 inches diameter; tops are good greens. Long season beets can be left in the ground over winter but harvest before spring or they will bolt.
Broccoli Cut while the buds are compact; have not turned yellow or opened into flowers. Leave the plant so side shoots will develop new; smaller buds.
Brussels Sprouts Cut when about 1 inch diameter; pick lower ones and let upper ones mature. Lower leaves can be removed to allow more room for sprouts.
Cabbage Cut heads when solid before they crack or split. Small heads may develop later from cut stem. If you have a lot maturing at the same time; you can retard growth on some by giving the head a quarter-turn twist to break some of the roots.
Carrots Ready when crisp and ½ to 1 inch diameter. Sugar content is higher in older carrots but younger ones are more tender. Fall crop can be left in soil to harvest over the winter.
Cauliflower Harvest before heads over mature and become "ricey". Heads should be firm and compact; 6-8 inches diameter. If you tie together the outer leaves over the head 7-12 days before harvest; it will help to blanch the head. This crop is difficult in hot weather; best to grow as a fall or winter crop.
Chard Use leaves 8-10 inches long. New leaves continue to grow from the center.
Chinese Cabbage Cut entire plant when compact and firm; before it bolts. Best as fall crop.
Corn Pick when silk turns dark; about 3 weeks after silk first appears. Kernels should be plump and milky.
Cucumbers Pick at 2 inches or less for pickles; can be longer for slicing. Cukes are old if they are large; puffy; dull and yellow. Keep vine picked so young fruit develop.
Eggplant Harvest when 6-8 inches long and uniformly deep color. Too old when dull; soft and seedy.
Endive; Escarole Cut at ground level when fully developed; 10-12 inches across. If you tie together the outer leaves over the head 7-12 days before harvest; it will help to blanch the head. For forcing varieties (such as Sugarhat); dig root over winter and bring into cool; dark location to force.
Garlic Pull when top turns yellow; air dry and trim roots later. Store in dry location.
Jerusalem Artichoke Dig tubers anytime from September to spring.
Kale Break off outer leaves when 8-10 inches long. New leaves continue from center.
Kohlrabi Harvest at silver solar size; larger ones get woody. Young leaves can be cooked like kale or cabbage.
Lettuce Ready in 50-60 days; turns bitter as the stalk goes to flower; remove it and plant something else.
Melons Stem "slips" or separates easily from the fruit. Bottom spot turns to yellowish color. Rind resists penetration with a fingernail.
Mustard Greens Break off outer leaves when 6-8 inches long. Best in cool weather.
Onions Harvest green onions when the thickness of a pencil. Harvest dry onions after tops fall down. Allow to air dry for 2-3 weeks. Then trim tops and store with good air circulation.
Parsnips Leave in ground until a freeze for sweetest flavor. Large ones may be woody; best as a fall crop. Can be left in ground over winter but harvest before spring.
Peas Pick when pod is full and green; about 1 week after flowering for edible pod varieties. Harvest shelling peas when still a bright green color.
Peppers Can harvest at any size but usually picked when fill grown and mature. Hot peppers need to be full ripe and colored.
Potatoes New or "baby" potatoes form anytime after flowers die back. For large potatoes; wait until the vine dies. Then dig and allow to finish drying in cool; dark place.
Pumpkins/Squash Allow to ripen on the vine to deep color and a hard rind. Winter squash are ready when the ground spot" on the underside changes from white to gold color. Cut from vine leaving 3-4 inches of stem attached. Store in a cool; dry place.
Radish Harvest at size of marbles up to 1 inch; in about 1 month. After that; they get pithy.
Rhubarb Do not harvest during first year. Harvest only 1-2 weeks second year. After that; you may harvest for 8-10 weeks. Only the stem is used because the leaves contain large amounts of oxalic acid.
Spinach Cut entire plant when plants have 6-8 leaves. They mature quickly and will bolt in hot weather.
Summer Squash Harvest while skin is still tender.
Sweet Potatoes Harvest before frost kills the vine. Handle carefully to avoid bruises. Let roots dry 2-3 hours then cure in warm; dry room for 10 days. Store in cool; humid location.
Tomatoes Fully colored but still firm. Overripe ones turn mushy. Below 50 degrees tomatoes lose flavor so don't try too hard to save unripe ones at season's end. Green tomatoes with a white star on the blossom end are good for frying.
Turnips Harvest roots when 2-3 inches in diameter. Tops are good greens at 4-6 inches long. Can be left in ground over winter but harvest before spring.

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